IDSwiss AccGene NameAliasDescription
7099O00206TLR4TOLL; hTolltoll-like receptor 4

Other aliasesTOLL; TLR4; TLR-4; TLR 4; hToll; CD284; CD-284; CD 284; CD284 antigen; CD 284 antigen; toll-like receptor4; toll-like receptor-4; toll-like receptor 4; Toll-like receptor 4 precursor

FunctionThe protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family which plays a fundamental role in pathogen recognition and activation of innate immunity. TLRs are highly conserved from Drosophila to humans and share structural and functional similarities. They recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are expressed on infectious agents, and mediate the production of cytokines necessary for the development of effective immunity. The various TLRs exhibit different patterns of expression. This receptor is most abundantly expressed in placenta, and in myelomonocytic subpopulation of the leukocytes. It has been implicated in signal transduction events induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) found in most gram-negative bacteria. Mutations in this gene have been associated with differences in LPS responsiveness. Also, several transcript variants encoding different isoforms of this gene product have been reported.


Gene OntologyGO:0045368 positive regulation of interleukin-13 biosynthesis
GO:0005887 integral to plasma membrane
GO:0045087 innate immune response
GO:0045671 negative regulation of osteoclast differentiation
GO:0016046 detection of fungi
GO:0004888 transmembrane receptor activity
GO:0007250 activation of NF-kappaB-inducing kinase
GO:0016020 membrane
GO:0009598 detection of pathogenic bacteria
GO:0006955 immune response
GO:0042088 T-helper 1 type immune response
GO:0046696 lipopolysaccharide receptor complex
GO:0045084 positive regulation of interleukin-12 biosynthesis
GO:0045410 positive regulation of interleukin-6 biosynthesis
GO:0005515 protein binding
GO:0042116 macrophage activation
GO:0045362 positive regulation of interleukin-1 biosynthesis
GO:0045576 mast cell activation
GO:0001530 lipopolysaccharide binding
GO:0007165 signal transduction

Database cross references



Integrated protein interaction and pathway information

Interacting Partners (HPRD)Experiment
CD14in vivo
HSP90B1in vivo
TLR1in vivo
LY96in vivo
TIRAPin vivo
TOLLIPin vivo
SIGIRRin vivo
-yeast 2-hybrid
TICAM2in vitro;in vivo;yeast 2-hybrid
MYD88in vivo
TLR5in vitro;in vivo
IRAK2in vivo
RIPK2in vivo
BCL10in vivo
NOX4in vitro;yeast 2-hybrid
MAPK8IP3in vivo
-in vitro;in vivo
HMGB1in vivo
IRAK1in vivo
BTKyeast 2-hybrid
SYKin vivo
DEFB4in vitro;in vivo

Interacting Partner (IntAct)Interaction typeDetection method
TIRAP physical interaction anti tag coip

Pathway (NetPath)PubMedRegulationExperiment
IL-211841848 UpregulationNon-Microarray
IL-411841848,10709778,16670286 DownregulationNon-Microarray
IL-512600815 UpregulationMicroarray

Pathway (KEGG)[Toll-like receptor signaling pathway] [Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection - EHEC] [Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection - EPEC]

Pathway (CGAP/BioCarta)[Dendritic cells in regulating TH1 and TH2 Development ] [Inactivation of Gsk3 by AKT causes accumulation of b-catenin in Alveolar Macrophages ] [NF-kB Signaling Pathway ] [Toll-Like Receptor Pathway ]

© 2008 National Taiwan Univerisity, Taipei, Taiwan